Glass, Optical & Laser Materials | AMERICAN ELEMENTS

American Elements produces a wide range of glass and crystalline materials for optical, laser, lighting, electronics and other applications. Optical products are engineered to meet the most rigorous quality standards and produced from ultra-high purity materials. Production of crystalline materials is overseen by experts at our state-of-the-art crystal synthesis facilities utilizing Bridgman ...

Germanium Detectors

Far-Field Laser Diode Pattern Analysis Infrared Fiber Testing; Package: J16P Series arrays are mounted in the Judson "40P" package, a 40 pin, dual-in-line package with glass window (Fig. 15). Pins 1 and 21 are connected to the common substrate. Elements of the 16-element array are connected to pins 23-38.

Germanium Avalanche Photodiode | Ushio America, Inc.

Germanium Avalanche Photodiode. We offer a variety of standard and custom PIN Photodiodes and APDs is fiber coupled packages, of proven manufacture and design. Our Germanium devices are suitable from 800 to 2100nm. All devices are available in fiber pigtailed co-axial packages or in connector-style receptacle packages. Pigtailing.

Germanium Windows - Thorlabs

Sep 09, 2021· Due to its broad transmission range and opacity in the visible portion of the spectrum, germanium is well suited for IR laser applications. As indicated by the plots in the Graphs tab, germanium also acts as a longpass filter for wavelengths greater than 2 µm. In addition, germanium is inert to air, water, alkalis, and many acids.

Germanium wafer,Ge wafer,Germanium wafer price

Laser Marking: upon request ... High-purity germanium is doped with trivalent elements (such as indium, gallium, boron) to obtain P-type germanium semiconductors; and pentavalent elements (such as antimony, arsenic, and phosphorus) are doped to obtain N-type germanium semiconductors. Germanium has good semiconductor properties, such as high ...

An electrically pumped germanium laser - OSA Publishing

Electrically pumped lasing from Germanium-on-Silicon pnn heterojunction diode structures is demonstrated. Room temperature multimode laser with 1mW output power is measured. Phosphorous doping in Germanium at a concentration over 4x1019cm−3 is achieved. A Germanium gain spectrum of nearly 200nm is observed.

Modeling of continuous wave laser melting of germanium ...

In this paper, by means of finite element numerical simulation, a 808 nm laser recrystallization thermal physics model of a high-Ge-content SiGe film (for example, Si 0.2 Ge 0.8 ) on a Si ...

An electrically pumped germanium laser

An electrically pumped germanium laser Rodolfo E. Camacho-Aguilera,1 Yan Cai,1 Neil Patel,1 Jonathan T. Bessette,1 Marco Romagnoli,1,2 Lionel C. Kimerling,1 and Jurgen Michel1,* 1Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 2PhotonIC Corporation, 5800 Uplander Way, Los Angeles, CA 90230, USA *[email protected] ...

mj] - DTIC

A germanium film prepared after removal of these impurities from the germanium melt had a greatly reduced heavy metal content and had low absorption compared with previous films. A partial explanation of the rate dependence of absorption is provided by these observations. The impurities in the germanium source material were

Germanium-lead perovskite light-emitting diodes | Nature ...

Jul 13, 2021· Reducing environmental impact is a key challenge for perovskite optoelectronics, as most high-performance devices are based on potentially toxic lead-halide perovskites. For photovoltaic solar ...

Germanium (Ge) Windows - Laser Optics | Edmund Optics

As such, these germanium windows should be used at temperatures below 100°C. Germanium's high density (5.33 g/cm 3) should be considered when designing for weight-sensitive systems. The Knoop Hardness of germanium (780) is approximately twice that of magnesium fluoride, making it ideal for infrared applications requiring rugged optics.

A new facet for germanium | MIT News | Massachusetts ...

Jan 31, 2020· As a postdoc at MIT from 2007 to 2010, Liu worked on the first germanium laser and the first germanium-silicon electroabsorption modulator with Jurgen Michel and Lionel C. Kimerling, the Thomas Lord Professor of Materials Science and Engineering. At Dartmouth, Liu continues research on germanium and other materials such as germanium-tin ...

Germanium lens element - All industrial manufacturers - Videos

germanium negative achromatic. double lens element. ø 6.25 - 25 mm. Wavelength: 0.425 µm - 0.675 µm. Diameter: 6.25 mm - 25 mm. ... achromatic lenses engineered by Edmund Optics, are tools that feature an AR coated design. They are composed of two optical elements which are cemented together.

Germanium - Wikipedia

Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin.Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature.

Germanium Oxides - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

The chalcogenide glasses are made of chalcogen elements (e.g., sulfur (S), selenium (Se), and tellurium (Te) excluding oxygen of Group VIA elements) and other elements such as arsenic (As), germanium (Ge), gallium (Ga), antimony (Sb), etc. of the periodic table. As 2 S 3, As 2 Se 3, and Sb 2 S 3 are some of the examples of the chalcogenide ...

3D microoptical elements formed in a photostructurable ...

Dec 01, 2012· 3D microoptical elements formed in a photostructurable germanium silicate by direct laser writing Author links open overlay panel M. Malinauskas a b A. Žukauskas a V. Purlys a b A. Gaidukevičiu¯tė b Z. Balevičius c A. Piskarskas a C. Fotakis b S. Pissadakis b D. Gray b R. Gadonas a M. Vamvakaki b d M. Farsari b

Germanium - Element information, properties and uses ...

Germanium is a semiconductor. The pure element was commonly doped with arsenic, gallium or other elements and used as a transistor in thousands of electronic applications. Today, however, other semiconductors have replaced it. Germanium oxide has a high index of refraction and dispersion.

First germanium-tin semiconductor laser directly ...

A germanium-tin laser prototype has the potential for providing super-fast light-based data transmission on computer chips (Photo: Forschungszentrum Jülich) View gallery - 3 images

The germanium laser might be harder to implement than ...

Jun 26, 2017· 998. "It was saluted as the holy grail of Silicon Photonics," says physicist Giovanni Capellini, referring to the first laser built from layers of germanium grown on a silicon wafer back in 2010. The achievement was a giant leap toward moving data …

Scientists construct the first germanium-tin semiconductor ...

Jan 20, 2015· As a consequence, the germanium-tin (GeSn) laser can be applied directly onto a silicon chip and thus creates a new basis for transmitting data on …

First germanium laser | MIT News | Massachusetts Institute ...

Feb 04, 2010· MIT researchers have demonstrated the first laser built from germanium that can produce wavelengths of light useful for optical communication. It's also the first germanium laser to operate at room temperature. Unlike the materials typically used in lasers, germanium is easy to incorporate into existing processes for manufacturing silicon chips.

Trace Determination of Germanium by Continuous Flow ...

Fly ash; germanium; hydride generation; laser-induced fluorescence Introduction Germanium (Ge) is a trace element that has essential effects on human health (Jiang, Shi, and Wu 2007 ...

Germanium | History, Uses, Facts, Physical & Chemical ...

Feb 05, 2010· Germanium Laser Breakthrough Brings Optical Computing Closer. Researchers at MIT have demonstrated the first laser that uses the element …

Germanium Wafers: First germanium laser brings us closer ...

Jan 11, 2018· It's also the first germanium laser to operate at room temperature. Unlike the materials typically used in lasers, germanium is easy to incorporate into existing processes for manufacturing silicon chips. ... Their first strategy is a technique, common in chip manufacturing, called "doping," in which atoms of some other element are added ...

US7596158B2 - Method and structure of germanium laser on ...

A laser structure includes at least one active layer having doped Ge so as to produce light emissions at approximately 1550 nm from the direct band gap of Ge. A first confinement structure is positioned on a top region of the at least one active layer. A second confinement structure is positioned on a bottom region the at least one active layer.

Germanium (Ge) | AMERICAN ELEMENTS

Germanium is a Block P, Group 14, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of germanium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 4 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d 10 4s 2 4p 2. The germanium atom has a radius of 122.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 211.pm. In its elemental form, CAS, germanium is a brittle grayish white semi ...

Germanium photonics - spie.org

High-quality germanium growth on silicon is challenging due to a large lattice mismatch (∼4%), but during the past decade, a number of researchers have fabricated useful germanium films by electron-beam evaporation, chemical-vapor deposition, pulsed-laser deposition, and molecular beam epitaxy.

Monocrystalline Germanium (Ge) Ingot Crystal with Low EPD

Oct 08, 2021· Monocrystalline Germanium (Ge) ingot is provided with P type by PAM-XIAMEN. Germanium crystal does not contain large-angle grain boundaries or twin crystals. It has a diamond-shaped crystal structure and is an important semiconductor material. According different applications, single crystal germanium ingot can be divided into solar-grade ...

Germanium Lens, Ge Lenses, Germanium Optics

Germanium is mainly used in the thermal imaging system and infrared (FLIR) field. It is critical that the surface of the material has a promising finish and good transmittance. Hyperion Optics provides 40-20 surface quality Ge lenses as factory standard …

Erbium - Wikipedia

Erbium is a chemical element with the symbol Er and atomic number 68. A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements. It is a lanthanide, a rare-earth element, originally found in the gadolinite mine in Ytterby, Sweden, which is the source of the element's name.. Erbium's principal uses involve its pink-colored ...

As-cut Germanium (Ge) Window for IR Transmission

Sep 18, 2021· Therefore, germanium single crystal is an ideal solution for the carbon dioxide laser cavity. There is a strong opacity of Ge material in the whole visible spectrum. This characteristic makes it possible for applications of IR wavelength, like low power CO2 laser.

Production of pristine, sulfur-coated and silicon-alloyed ...

Jul 08, 2015· Here we demonstrate production of three types of germanium containing nanoparticles (NPs) by laser pyrolysis of GeH 4 and characterize their sizes, structures and composition. Pristine Ge NPs were fabricated with 50 standard cubic centimeter per minute (sccm) of GeH 4 and 25 sccm of SF 6 as a photosensitizer gas, while sulfur-coated Ge NPs were produced with 25 sccm of GeH 4 and 50 …

Infrared Optics | Silicon and Germanium | Lattice ...

Lattice Materials is a U.S. manufacturer of parts from hard, brittle infrared materials for a wide variety of applications and industries. Our capabilities include in-house custom silicon and germanium crystal growth, basic machining for optical blanks, precision optical curve generation, high-precision polishing, and more. Since 1989, we've ...

Gallium arsenide - Wikipedia

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a III-V direct band gap semiconductor with a zinc blende crystal structure.. Gallium arsenide is used in the manufacture of devices such as microwave frequency integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, infrared light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, solar cells and optical windows.. GaAs is often used as a substrate material for the epitaxial ...

Computers that use light instead of electricity? First ...

Feb 05, 2010· Researchers have demonstrated the first laser built from germanium that can emit wavelengths of light useful for optical communications. It's also the …

Is Germanium a Miracle Cure?

Oct 09, 2019· Germanium is a chemical element that can be found in trace amounts in some ores and carbon-based materials. Some people promote it as a treatment for HIV and AIDS, …

Germanium (Ge) Windows - Laser Optics | Edmund Optics

As such, these germanium windows should be used at temperatures below 100°C. Germanium's high density (5.33 g/cm 3) should be considered when designing for weight-sensitive systems. The Knoop Hardness of germanium (780) is approximately …

Towards a Germanium and Silicon Laser: The History and the ...

Various theoretical as well as empirical considerations about how to achieve lasing between the conduction and valence bands in indirect band gap semiconductors (germanium and silicon) are reviewed, starting from the dawn of the laser epoch in the beginning of the sixties. While in Ge the room-temperature lasing under electrical pumping has recently been achieved, in Si this objective remains ...

Lasing in strained germanium microbridges | Nature ...

Jun 20, 2019· Germanium has long been regarded as a promising laser material for silicon based opto-electronics. It is CMOS-compatible and has a favourable band …

Germanium Made Laser-Compatible | Research & Technology ...

A manufacturing technique that alters the optical properties of germanium — an element incompatible with lasers — has rendered the semicon. Menu. Photonics Media Buyers' Guide. Register Login. Publications News Features Products Technologies Media Education Careers Webinars Events.